A narrative is a text that tells a story and, in doing so, entertains the audience. The purpose of a narrative, other than providing entertainment, can be to make the audience think about an issue, teach them a lesson, or excite their emotions. Here is the structure of narrative story:

1.   Orientation

In this paragraph the narrator tells the audience who is in the story, when it is happening, where it is happening and what is going on.

2. Complication

This is the part of the story where the narrator tells about something that will begin a chain of events. These events will affect one or more of the characters. The complication is the trigger.

3. Sequence of events

This is where the narrator tells how the characters react to the complication. It includes their feelings and what they do. The events can be told in chronological order (the order in which they happen) or with flashbacks. The audience is given the narrator’s point of view.

4. Resolution

In this part of the narrative the complication is sorted out or the problem is solved

5. Coda

The narrator includes a coda if there is a moral or message to be learned from the story.

Examples :

# 1st Story

Once a fox was roaming around in the dark. Unfortunately, he fell into a well. He tried his level best to come out but all in vain. So, he had no other alternative but to remain there till the next morning. The next day, a goat came that way. She peeped into the well and saw the fox there. The goat asked “what are you doing there, Mr. Fox?”

The sly fox replied, “I came here to drink water. It is the best I have ever tasted. Come and see for yourself.” Without thinking even for a while, the goat jumped into the well, quenched her thirst and looked for a way to get out. But just like the fox, she also found herself helpless to come out.

Then the fox said, “I have an idea. You stand on your hind legs. I’ll climb on your head and get out. Then I shall help you come out too.” The goat was innocent enough to understand the shrewdness of the fox and did as the fox said and helped him get out of the well.

While walking away, the fox said, “Had you been intelligent enough, you would never have got in without seeing how to get out.”

#2nd Story

               Turtles used to live on the land, they say, until the time a clever turtle was caught by some hunters. They brought him to their village and placed the turtle before the Chief, who said, “How shall we cook him?”

“You’ll have to kill me first,” said the turtle, “and take me out of this shell.”

“We’ll break your shell with sticks,” they said.

“That’ll never work,” said the turtle, “Why don’t you throw me in the water and drown me?!”

“Excellent idea,” said the Chief. They took the turtle to the river and threw him into the water to drown him.

They were congratulating themselves on their success in drowning the turtle, when two little green eyes poked up in the water and the laughing turtle said, “Don’t get those cooking pots out too fast, foolish people! As he swam away he said, “I think I’ll spend most of my time from now on, safely in the water.”



1. Imagery: It is the use of figurative language to create visual representations of actions, objects and ideas in our mind in such a way that they appeal to our physical senses. For example:
a. The room was dark and gloomy. -The words “dark” and “gloomy” are visual images.
b. The jungle is really fresh and green


2. Simile and Metaphor: Both compare two distinct objects and draws similarity between them. The difference is that Simile uses “as” or “like” and Metaphor does not. For example:
a. “My love is like a red red rose” (Simile)
b. He is an old fox very cunning. (Metaphor)

c. That you were Romeo you were throwing pebbles and my dad said stay away from Juliet (Metaphor)

3. Hyperbole: It is deliberate exaggeration of actions and ideas for the sake of emphasis. For example:
a. Your bag weighs a ton!
b. I have got a million issues to look after!

c. . You start to freeze as horror looks you right between the eyes

4. Personification: It gives a thing, an idea or an animal human qualities. For example:
a. The flowers are dancing beside the lake.
b. The wall of this room whispers a message to the owner

c. I just wanted to take this in, The moonlight dancin’ off your skin

5. Alliteration: It refers to the same consonant sounds in words coming together. For example:
a. Better butter always makes the batter better.
b. She sells seashells at seashore.

c.”This time, This place, Misused, Mistakes, Too long, Too late”

6. Irony: It is use of the words in such a way in which the intended meaning is completely opposite to their literal meaning. For example:
a. The bread is soft as a stone.
b. Your voice is a beautiful melody that can annihilate this house


The present continuous tense is formed with to be (is/am/are) and verb-ing. We use it to talk about:

A. The on-going or progressing event in the present or happening at the moment of speaking. Examples:

  • I’m just leaving work. I’ll be home in an hour.
    Please be quiet. The children are sleeping

B. For something which we think is temporary:

  • Fatih is at university. He’s studying  literature.
    I’m working in UGM for the next two weeks.

C. For something which is new and contrasts with a previous state:

  • These days most people are using WA or LINE instead of writing letters.
  • Many youngsters nowadays are expressing their thought with Vlog

D. Showing that something is changing or developing:

  • The children are growing quickly.
  • The climate is changing rapidly.
  • Your English is improving.

E. We use the present continuous tense to talk about the future

  • Mary is going to a new school next term.
  • What are you doing next week?


She, He, It, Ali ——> is +  Ving

They, We, You ——> are + Ving

I —————–> am + Ving




“Mary is as beautiful as a star. Her thick, wavy, long black hair gracefully falls down to her shoulders and encircles her diamond-shaped face. A golden suntan usually brings out her smooth, clear complexion and high cheek bones. Her slightly arched chestnut brown eyebrows highlight her emotions by moving up and down as she reacts to her world around her. Her large deep blue eyes, remind me of a lake on a stormy day. Her curved nose gives her a little girl look that makes me want to smile when she talks. When she smiles, which is often, her well formed and even, white teeth brighten up her whole face. I guess you can tell that I am head over heals in love with Mary.”

Wooo… how nice that man describes the girl he saw. Yeah… people have the ability to define what they know, see or feel. That’s why in terms of text production, we are introduced to a Description Text.

A description text describes the qualities, characteristics and parts of things as they personify the things we choose to describe.

When we compose this type of text, we firstly need to define the subject of our writing, and this process is done by identifying it into its category, group, or general thing it may belong to. We call the first process as IDENTIFICATION.

After doing the first stage, we can move to the detailed information about the topic we choose to compose. The second is named a DESCRIPTION. This stage will describe the quality, physical appearences, parts and other specific things owned by the subject.

Language Features

A description text talks about a natural and social phenomenon. These phenomena are facts which characteristics are never changed by the time. Thus, this text is mainly written with a simple present tense and adjectives in may parts of it. Study the examples below:


#Example 1

My cute little monkey keychain is my favorite keychain of all time. He hangs with my locker key for almost three months now. I got him from my mother when she came back from Singapore. He has brown fur on his body and lighter brown fur covering his toes, hands, face, ears, and tummy. He has a thick rope tied on his neck. He is very light to carry and not too small. I hang it to my keychain so that I won’t lose them because the monkey fits in my hands and pocket.

#Example 2:

Mount Vesuvius



Mount Vesuvius, on the west coast of Italy, is the only active volcano on mainland Europe. It is best known because of the eruption in A.D. 79 that destroyed the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Mount Vesuvius is considered to be one of the most dangerous volcanoes in the world due to the large population of the city of Naples and the surrounding towns on the slopes nearby.

The volcano is classed as a complex stratovolcano because its eruptions typically involve explosive eruptions as well as pyroclastic flows. Vesuvius and other Italian volcanoes, such as Campi Flegrei and Stromboli, are part of the Campanian volcanic arc. The Campanian arc sits on a tectonic boundary where the African plate is being subducted beneath the Eurasian plate.

Under Vesuvius, scientists have detected a tear in the African plate. This “slab window” allows heat from the Earth’s mantle layer to melt the rock of the African plate building up pressure that causes violent explosive eruptions. In the past, Mount Vesuvius has had a roughly 20-year eruption cycle, but the last serious eruption was in 1944.

Simple Present Tense


Simple Present tense is a form of verb that is used to show some contexts of action: habitual action, scheduled action and general truth or fact. These contexts or actions are described with the use of verb 1 or base verb. See the examples below:

  1. Azzam Al-Fatih reads the Quran everyday (scheduled)
  2. They study in group once every month (scheduled)
  3. She likes to plant various kinds of flower (habit)
  4. The water flows from the river to the ocean (fact)

What we need to know after understanding the purpose is the way to use the base verb or verb 1. This base verb has two forms, singular and plural. The singular base verb is indicated by the addition of -s in the final position of the verb (see examples 1, 3 and 4). This singular verb always follow singular pronoun such as he, she, it or name of people or things. While the plural verb doesn’t need any additional letter or words (see example 2). The plural verb follows I, You, They, We.


Please modify the word in brackets by using simple present tense.

  1. He always (make) his mother happy.
  2. They regularly (create) a new innovation
  3. She (feed) the fishes in the pond every morning
  4. We (love) to make drama for a classroom role play
  5. I (pray) five times a day

Defeating Bullies

Passage by Araina Hardin

Poster by Nadira Ratunanda & Shifa Rahma

Do you ever feel bullied? Or do you ever bully someone? What do you feel about doing that?

Sometimes someone do bullying things because they are mentally broken. They love to see people in suffer. Do you know people who do bully are actually people who ever been bullied?

The reality has changed and it makes them feel like having a power to bully the victims. They want to know how it feels and it’s like a revenge. But there are also people who are bullied but have no chance to change their lives. Do you know the impacts?


People can kill themselves. People can take so much blood from them. They release the pain by giving pain. You must have seen people who suffer caused by bullying. What do you see? You see people who feel like they have no one. They feel like they are unwanted in this life.

What if you bully? What will you say to them? “You are such a useless person”, “we don’t need you”, “you are as ugly as the ugliest thing on earth”. Sometimes people who do bully don’t mirror themselves. The victims are better than the disturber. But what do they think? The victims need to die because they don’t deserve to live.

Imagine life without bullies. It’s going to be peaceful and easy to live. There will be no victims, there will be no disturbers. All live together. But the fact is, how can it be? My country, Indonesia is in the fact known as one of the country that has high percentage of bullies. That ‘how can it be?’ question is one of the reasons why things won’t change. Let’s try to change it and open our mind. Maybe you think one person won’t give impact. But what if one person and others gather into one?