A narrative is a text that tells a story and, in doing so, entertains the audience. The purpose of a narrative, other than providing entertainment, can be to make the audience think about an issue, teach them a lesson, or excite their emotions. Here is the structure of narrative story:

1.   Orientation

In this paragraph the narrator tells the audience who is in the story, when it is happening, where it is happening and what is going on.

2. Complication

This is the part of the story where the narrator tells about something that will begin a chain of events. These events will affect one or more of the characters. The complication is the trigger.

3. Sequence of events

This is where the narrator tells how the characters react to the complication. It includes their feelings and what they do. The events can be told in chronological order (the order in which they happen) or with flashbacks. The audience is given the narrator’s point of view.

4. Resolution

In this part of the narrative the complication is sorted out or the problem is solved

5. Coda

The narrator includes a coda if there is a moral or message to be learned from the story.

Examples :

# 1st Story

Once a fox was roaming around in the dark. Unfortunately, he fell into a well. He tried his level best to come out but all in vain. So, he had no other alternative but to remain there till the next morning. The next day, a goat came that way. She peeped into the well and saw the fox there. The goat asked “what are you doing there, Mr. Fox?”

The sly fox replied, “I came here to drink water. It is the best I have ever tasted. Come and see for yourself.” Without thinking even for a while, the goat jumped into the well, quenched her thirst and looked for a way to get out. But just like the fox, she also found herself helpless to come out.

Then the fox said, “I have an idea. You stand on your hind legs. I’ll climb on your head and get out. Then I shall help you come out too.” The goat was innocent enough to understand the shrewdness of the fox and did as the fox said and helped him get out of the well.

While walking away, the fox said, “Had you been intelligent enough, you would never have got in without seeing how to get out.”

#2nd Story

               Turtles used to live on the land, they say, until the time a clever turtle was caught by some hunters. They brought him to their village and placed the turtle before the Chief, who said, “How shall we cook him?”

“You’ll have to kill me first,” said the turtle, “and take me out of this shell.”

“We’ll break your shell with sticks,” they said.

“That’ll never work,” said the turtle, “Why don’t you throw me in the water and drown me?!”

“Excellent idea,” said the Chief. They took the turtle to the river and threw him into the water to drown him.

They were congratulating themselves on their success in drowning the turtle, when two little green eyes poked up in the water and the laughing turtle said, “Don’t get those cooking pots out too fast, foolish people! As he swam away he said, “I think I’ll spend most of my time from now on, safely in the water.”



1. Imagery: It is the use of figurative language to create visual representations of actions, objects and ideas in our mind in such a way that they appeal to our physical senses. For example:
a. The room was dark and gloomy. -The words “dark” and “gloomy” are visual images.
b. The jungle is really fresh and green


2. Simile and Metaphor: Both compare two distinct objects and draws similarity between them. The difference is that Simile uses “as” or “like” and Metaphor does not. For example:
a. “My love is like a red red rose” (Simile)
b. He is an old fox very cunning. (Metaphor)

c. That you were Romeo you were throwing pebbles and my dad said stay away from Juliet (Metaphor)

3. Hyperbole: It is deliberate exaggeration of actions and ideas for the sake of emphasis. For example:
a. Your bag weighs a ton!
b. I have got a million issues to look after!

c. . You start to freeze as horror looks you right between the eyes

4. Personification: It gives a thing, an idea or an animal human qualities. For example:
a. The flowers are dancing beside the lake.
b. The wall of this room whispers a message to the owner

c. I just wanted to take this in, The moonlight dancin’ off your skin

5. Alliteration: It refers to the same consonant sounds in words coming together. For example:
a. Better butter always makes the batter better.
b. She sells seashells at seashore.

c.”This time, This place, Misused, Mistakes, Too long, Too late”

6. Irony: It is use of the words in such a way in which the intended meaning is completely opposite to their literal meaning. For example:
a. The bread is soft as a stone.
b. Your voice is a beautiful melody that can annihilate this house


“Mary is as beautiful as a star. Her thick, wavy, long black hair gracefully falls down to her shoulders and encircles her diamond-shaped face. A golden suntan usually brings out her smooth, clear complexion and high cheek bones. Her slightly arched chestnut brown eyebrows highlight her emotions by moving up and down as she reacts to her world around her. Her large deep blue eyes, remind me of a lake on a stormy day. Her curved nose gives her a little girl look that makes me want to smile when she talks. When she smiles, which is often, her well formed and even, white teeth brighten up her whole face. I guess you can tell that I am head over heals in love with Mary.”

Wooo… how nice that man describes the girl he saw. Yeah… people have the ability to define what they know, see or feel. That’s why in terms of text production, we are introduced to a Description Text.

A description text describes the qualities, characteristics and parts of things as they personify the things we choose to describe.

When we compose this type of text, we firstly need to define the subject of our writing, and this process is done by identifying it into its category, group, or general thing it may belong to. We call the first process as IDENTIFICATION.

After doing the first stage, we can move to the detailed information about the topic we choose to compose. The second is named a DESCRIPTION. This stage will describe the quality, physical appearences, parts and other specific things owned by the subject.

Language Features

A description text talks about a natural and social phenomenon. These phenomena are facts which characteristics are never changed by the time. Thus, this text is mainly written with a simple present tense and adjectives in may parts of it. Study the examples below:


#Example 1

My cute little monkey keychain is my favorite keychain of all time. He hangs with my locker key for almost three months now. I got him from my mother when she came back from Singapore. He has brown fur on his body and lighter brown fur covering his toes, hands, face, ears, and tummy. He has a thick rope tied on his neck. He is very light to carry and not too small. I hang it to my keychain so that I won’t lose them because the monkey fits in my hands and pocket.

#Example 2:

Mount Vesuvius



Mount Vesuvius, on the west coast of Italy, is the only active volcano on mainland Europe. It is best known because of the eruption in A.D. 79 that destroyed the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Mount Vesuvius is considered to be one of the most dangerous volcanoes in the world due to the large population of the city of Naples and the surrounding towns on the slopes nearby.

The volcano is classed as a complex stratovolcano because its eruptions typically involve explosive eruptions as well as pyroclastic flows. Vesuvius and other Italian volcanoes, such as Campi Flegrei and Stromboli, are part of the Campanian volcanic arc. The Campanian arc sits on a tectonic boundary where the African plate is being subducted beneath the Eurasian plate.

Under Vesuvius, scientists have detected a tear in the African plate. This “slab window” allows heat from the Earth’s mantle layer to melt the rock of the African plate building up pressure that causes violent explosive eruptions. In the past, Mount Vesuvius has had a roughly 20-year eruption cycle, but the last serious eruption was in 1944.